As far as I know, there was only one manufacturer of semiconductor devices in the former sovereign state of Czechoslovakia: the Tesla company. The company used a number of logos, most involving the word Tesla plus a wave symbol, such as the one shown. On semiconductor devices, they used just the word TESLA in capitals. There is disagreement about whether the company name has a connection to the Serbian-American electrical engineer and inventor Nikola Tesla.
I am indebted to a correspondent, Ivo, who provided me with fascinating information about Tesla. The company was formed in the years after the second world war by government directive. Research and development was based at the VUST Institute in Prague. (VUST stands for Výzkumný ústav sdělovací techniky, which means 'Research Institute of Communication Technique'). The production was realized in the Tesla factory at Rožnov, a small Moravian town. In 1950, the experimental point-contact transistor was developed at VUST. Between 1953 and 1954, point-contact detector diodes and the development of alloy transistors was done. Production of the first PNP alloy transistors xNU40 started in 1955 followed in 1958 by production of the NPN alloy transistor series xxxNU70. In 1956, a demonstration transistor receiver was built with transistors xxxNU70, except for the oscillator, where the point-contact transistor was used because of its higher frequency. In 1958 a receiver 'T58' was produced with transistors xxxNU70 as shown in this article.
There is also a comprehensive 'exhibition guide' in Czech on the Web, from an exhibition held about Tesla Rožnov in 2014 at the Wallachian Museum. It's a pdf that can be translated rather patchily by Google. On page 50 it has images of some interesting germanium diodes and transistors and it gives the following timeline for germanium devices:
- 1950 The first experimental point-contact transistor
- 1953 Development of point-contact diodes in VÚVE Prague and surface transistors in VÚEF Prague
- 1954 Introduction of the production of germanium point-contact diodes in Rožnov
- 1955 Production of alloy Ge PNP transistors 1NU40, 1NU70 in Rožnov
- 1958 Production of alloy Ge NPN transistors 101NU70, 151NU70
- 1958 The first TESLA T58 transistor radio with 9 transistors
- 1959 Alloy rectifier diode 20 A 81NP71
- 1960 Power low frequency alloy transistors up to 50 W 2NU74
- 1961 Diffusion alloy transistors OC170 for frequencies 50 MHz
- 1962 Diffusion alloy mesa GF501 transistors for frequencies 300 MHz
- 1966 Diffusion alloy mesa GF507 transistors for frequencies 800 MHz
- Late 80's - end of production of germanium components
And another for silicon devices, which I have truncated here as the more modern types do not interest me :
- 1958 Development of technology for the production of pure monocrystalline Si in Tesla Rožnov
- 1959 Single crystal Si with a diameter of 20 mm produced by the flying zone method (FZ)
- 1960 Rectifier diode for current 1 A - 42NP75
- 1961 Surface stabilizing Zener diode 1NZ70
- 1961 Development of own version of planar technology
- 1963 Gate photon 1PP75, predecessor of solar cells
- 1964 The first planar transistor KF506
- 1964 Rectifying diode for current 20 A - KY715
- 1965 Dislocationless single crystal Si
- 1965 Microwave detection diode for frequencies up to 26 GHz - 40NQ70
- 1966 PNPN thyristor - controlled rectifier KT501
- 1966 Development of MOS technology for field-effect transistors
Rather oddly, most of Tesla's early semiconductor series are identified by two-letters plus a two-digit suffix, with a one- or two-digit prefix that denotes an individual type within the series. This makes cataloguing difficult because they do not sort alphanumerically into series. I have Tesla data books from 1968 and 1976, and some data sheets from 1966. Tesla devices are included in a Hungarian data book from 1960. However I have little original data for the earliest types.
As with all Eastern European semiconductor manufacturers, Tesla went through major changes after the collapse of the USSR. Some of its parts still survive as specialist manufacturers.
Tesla made a small number of point-contact transistors type xNT40 about which I have no data. I would be very interested to find examples of these, or even just data about them.
If you know anything about these, or have data about them, please
I am also seeking examples of Tesla's point-contact diodes 1NN40 - 6NN40 listed in the Hungarian data book linked above. I have not seen an example of these, but old data books show the diagram on the right, which suggests a glass body with a band of rubber or plastic around it.
If you know where I could obtain any, please
Also in that Hungarian book is the nNN41 series of germanium diodes. They have a typical glass body with a painted stripe around the cathode. The colour code used is a proprietary one as set out in the1966 Tesla Katalog. :
- 1NN41 = white
- 2NN41 = yellow
- 3NN41 = blue
- 4NN41 = green
- 5NN41 = red
- 6NN41 = black
- 7NN41 = violet
Some of these have a two-letter code printed on the body, values are XE, XF, FC, JK and DX. If anyone can explain these values, please
There are two more point-contact diodes in the NN41 series that seem to be rare:
- 10NN41 = brown-black
- 11NN41 = brown-brown
These may use a longer, thinner case than the lower-numbered NN41 types. Of course, I would be interested to obtain examples.
That Hungarian document also lists a second series of germanium types GA20n that use the same colouring except for the black one, but are physically smaller:
- GA201 = white
- GA202 = yellow
- GA203 = blue
- GA204 = green
- GA205 = red
- GA206 = violet
The Tesla 1968 'Semiconductor Elements' catalog adds two to this series:
- GA200 = brown
- GA207 = khaki (?)
I would be interested to obtain examples of these.
I would also be very interested to find examples of Tesla's first junction transistors, dating from about 1955. I have an undated page from a Tesla Katalog that lists the PNP types:
- 1NU40 to 4NU40 which I suspect used a black-painted cylindrical outline.
- 1NU70 to 4NU70 which I suspect used a black-painted oval outline.
- 10NU70 to 12NU70.
- 20NU70 to 23NU70.
- 30NU70 to 32NU70.
If you know where I could obtain any of these, or have data about them, please
Tesla's first production series of transistors is the xxxNU70 series of NPN germanium AF low-power transistors (102NU70 shown):
- 101NU70 - Vce 20 V, Ie 3 mA, 30 mW
- 102NU70 - Vce 25 V, Ie 5 mA, 50 mW
- 103NU70 - Vce 25 V, Ie 5 mA, 50 mW
- 104NU70 - Vce 25 V, Ie 5 mA, 50 mW
- 105NU70 - Vce 30 V, Ic 10 mA, 125 mW, h21e 20-40
- 106NU70 - Vce 30 V, Ic 10 mA, 125 mW, h21e 30-75
- 107NU70 - Vce 30 V, Ic 10 mA, 125 mW, h21e 65-130
Early production of these used a black-painted flat oval outline rather than the metallic cylinder shown. They may even not have been branded Tesla but have the word VÚPEF ('Výskumnom ústave pre elektrotechnickú fyziku' which translates as 'Research Institute for Electrotechnical Physics') on them. If you know where I could obtain any of these early ones, or have data about them, please
There are also 'bílý' versions of 105NU70 to 107NU70 that have lower maximum collector voltage and slightly different gain banding. This word means 'white'. Ivo thinks that this denotes a white spot on the top of the case. This might be a way of selling devics that did not meet the full spec.
- 105NU70 bílý - Vce 15 V, Ic 10 mA, 125 mW, h21e 20-45
- 106NU70 bílý - Vce 15 V, Ic 10 mA, 125 mW, h21e 34-73
- 107NU70 bílý - Vce 15 V, Ic 10 mA, 125 mW, h21e 68-120
The series 151-156NU70 are 'high-frequency' ultra-thin-base alloyed transistors used for AM receivers.
Early production of these also used a flat oval black case like Tesla's first junction transistors. I am very keen to find examples of them.
If you know about the oval can varieties please
There is also a series 101NU71 to 104NU71 of 250 mA types.
- 101NU71 - Vce 30 V, Ic 250 mA, 125 mW, h21e 45-120
- 102NU71 - Vce 30 V, Ic 250 mA, 125 mW, h21e 65-220
- 103NU71 - Vce 48 V, Ic 250 mA, 125 mW, h21e 45-220
- 104NU71 - Vce 20 V, Ic 250 mA, 125 mW, h21e 65-120
There are three series of PNP germanium AF high-power transistors:
Tesla also manufactured germanium types using standard GDR numbering, but using higher serial numbers than other manufacturers. The 1968 Katalog contains:
Originally some of the transistors came in a bespoke outline, as shown by my example of a GC500. Later they changed to the standard Tesla TO1A-like outline used by my examples of GS507 in a plain metal can and GC519 in a black-painted one. I suspect that the black paint indicates older examples.
I am looking for Tesla-branded examples of the power transistors. If you know where I could obtain any please
Tesla made versions of Western germanium junction transistors in the Philips/Mullard OC series. In the 1968 data book the following are listed:
My images show OC70 and OC169. I am looking for examples of the others. If you know where I could obtain examples of any please
Tesla went on to manufacture a large number of silicon transistors that do not really interest me. The 1968 Tesla Katalog contains silicon transistors in the standard BC, BD, BSX and BSY series and in the proprietary KC, KF, KD, KU, SU, KFY, KFW, KSY, KSZ, KDY, KUX and KUY series.
They also made silicon diodes in the KY and KYZ series. My image shows a KY701; it is not branded TESLA. Ivo informs me that these were made by Tesla Piešťany in Slovakia from 1967 onwards.
The 1968 Katalog contains some germanium diodes, including a few in the DDR GA and GAZ series:
The image shows a GAZ51 in the ubiquitous TO-1A can; despite the Z this is not a Zener, it is a gold-bonded switching diode.
This unusual construction is the 4-GAZ51, a set of four GAZ51 diodes for use in modulators / demodulators. The diodes themselves are unmarked except for some indistinct paint markings. I believe that there may also be a dual-diode 2-GAZ51 although I have never seen one.
Tesla also made versions of the Philips/Mullard germanium diodes OA5, OA7 and OA9 although they did not copy the standard SO-2 glass tube.
Tesla made a good number of germanium power rectifiers, listed here. The compound image shows a 45NP70 with its original valve-type carton, plus a close-up of the end flap. It is a germanium 10 Amp 200 Volt rectifier mounted on a square copper plate for bolting onto a larger heatsink.
Tesla also made germanium photodiodes:
My image shows the very thin 10PN40. I am looking for examples of the others. If you know where I could obtain examples of any please
The 1968 Tesla Katalog contains one silicon photodiode: this 1PP75.
Tesla went on to make many more discrete silicon devices and integrated circuits. Of interest are their earliest linear ICs in round TO99-like cans: