According to the Polish Wikipedia the first transistors made in Poland were point-contact types in 1953. However these were not suitable for commercial production.

Early junction transistors in Poland were made by the "fabryka tranzystorów" ("transistor factory") called TEWA, which was founded in 1958 from an R&D branch of the Polish Ministry of Communication. Another early Polish semiconductor factory was the "Zakład Produkcji Półprzewodników Pewa" (something like: Factory for Semiconductor Manufacturing Pewa) which had the logo "ZPP" on some early devices. In 1961 "Pewa" was merged with "Tewa" and from this moment most semiconductors (and all transistors) were manufactured there. The TEWA logo is shown on the right, and is a transistor symbol in a diamond with the letters F and T in it (for "fabryka tranzystorów"). TEWA logo

An interesting old description of Polish semiconductor manufacturing can be found in a declassified CIA document dated 19 October 1967, entitled "LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGY AND PRODUCTION OF SEMICONDUCTORS IN THE USSR AND EAST EUROPE". This states:

"All semiconductors produced In Poland are manufactured by the TEWA Semiconductor Factory. It produces alloy and diffusion type germanium diodes and transistors, rectifier diodes, and a few types of silicon diodes in limited quantity. Substantial quantities of semiconductors are from the Free World and from other Communist countries to compensate for the relatively narrow range of devices that are produced domestically.

By its own admission, Poland is far behind Free World countries in tbe development and production of semiconductors. The quality of Polish produced devices does not measure up to Free World standards. Nevertheless, according to technical evaluation made in the US, Polish germanium transistors are fully adequate for use in low frequency civil electronic end-items.

Substantial research on semiconductors has been underway in Poland since 1962 and some original studies have been carried out on transport phenomena. In addition, the University of Warsaw claims to have developed new methods of diffusing dopants into N-type materials. In 1966 the Baden Institute for Nuclear Research, Warsaw, developed a separation and recovery process for the extraction of germanium from its compounds. Up to this time, Poland hod imported all the germanium required by its semiconductor industry

While Poland could clearly benefit from Free World assistance, there ls no evidence of any major effort to purchase Free World plants or manufacturing licenses."

Very little other information is available in English on Polish germanium transistors. However Aleksander Zawada's site provides English translation (click on the Union Flag). There is also a site in Polish by John Barczyński, which Google translate does a good job on. However, if you know more or can help with my specific questions below, please


wanted transistor According to John, three point-contact transistors numbered TP1 to TP3 were made by the IPPT PAN Institute of Electronics in Poland in 1953 and 1954. They used a single-ended black cylindrical package. The same Institute also made the two alloy-junction types TW1 and TM2 although their dates are unknown. I would be extremely interested to obtain examples of any of these for my collection.

Jestem zainteresowany otrzymaniem egzemplarzy tych tranzystorów do mojej kolekcji.

If you can help, please


wanted transistor Again according to John, the next development took place at the Industrial Research Institute of Electronics in 1957, where the experimental types TZG1 to TZG6 were made. I would be extremely interested to obtain examples of any of these for my collection.

Jestem zainteresowany otrzymaniem egzemplarzy tych tranzystorów do mojej kolekcji.

If you can help, please


wanted transistor Next, according to John, at the end of the 1950s the Industrial Research Institute of Electronics made experimental types TZ5 to TZ11. I would be extremely interested to obtain examples of any of these for my collection.

Jestem zainteresowany otrzymaniem egzemplarzy tych tranzystorów do mojej kolekcji.

If you can help, please


wanted transistor The first industrially produced transistors made in Poland were the TC11-TC15, produced in limited quantity in the Experimental Plant of the Institute of Communications Semiconductors at the end of the 1950s. I would be extremely interested to obtain examples of these transistors for my collection.

Jestem zainteresowany otrzymaniem egzemplarzy tych tranzystorów do mojej kolekcji.

If you can help, please


TG2 transistor The first mass-produced transistors in Poland were made in 1960 by the company TEWA described above. These were the TG1 to TG5 low-power AF types. My image shows the type TG2, and I also have a TG3A and a TG5. The use of the hyphen seems to be optional, and I am unsure of the significance of the suffix A. The series is described (in Polish) on the Polish wikipedia as follows:

  • TG1 - the poorest performance type
  • TG2 - relatively inexpensive and poor performance
  • TG3A, TG3F - high gain and low noise, was the best of the series of transistors
  • TG4 - low noise
  • TG5 - increased collector voltage and relatively low noise. They were very popular.

The earliest examples used green-painted non-standard cans, with unpainted examples and standard cans being made later.

Very similar, but much less frequently encountered were the TG10 and TG20 transistors (average frequency, produced for a very short time), TG6 and TG8 (with higher allowable operating voltage), TG9, TG11 and TG21 (pulse transistors).

I would be interested to obtain examples of many of these, especially TG1.

Jestem zainteresowany otrzymaniem egzemplarzy tych tranzystorów, a zwłaszcza TG1, do mojej kolekcji.

If you can help, please


TG51 transistor The next series made by TEWA were the medium-power types TG50-55. The series is also described (in Polish) on the Polish wikipedia as follows:

  • TG50 - basic transistor series, very common
  • TG51 - high-voltage transistor
  • TG52 - for converters
  • TG53 - cheap, low-voltage collector
  • TG55 - designed for inverters

Again the earliest examples were the green-painted ones, in the "top hats", with unpainted examples being made later, and standard TO-5 cans being adopted even later.


TG70 transistor TEWA also made an early high-power series TG70-72 in the TO-3 package, albeit with non-standard long leads. Again you can read about it (in Polish) on the Polish wikipedia and again the earliest examples are the green-painted ones which are quite rare. In the final years of production (early 1970) these types were renumbered as ADP670-672. Versions were also produced with the suffix "S" that denotes "special production", for military, industry and computer purposes. Finally, they were renumbered as ADAP70-72.

There is a Web page that decodes the two-character date code on these early devices. It is a simple year-month system, although the year wrapped once, giving two choices. My TG70 is coded 3F which must be June 1961.


TG40 transistor I also have an examples of types TG39 and TG40 (shown), in a green-painted top hat. I believe these were part of a series TG37, TG38, TG39, TG40, TG41 comprising RF transistors with typical characteristics Vce = 6V, cut-off frequency> 40MHz, Ic = 10mA. The fourth lead is connected to the can as a screen. Later the package was changed and the series renumbered AF426 - AF430.


wanted There were also TG60 and TG61 types, medium-power AF transistors in the TO-3 (or TO-66?) can.


The beautiful Polish transistors above came from the Institute for Nuclear Physics, Cracow, Poland. I am indebted for most of the devices below to Piotr Ochwał in Poland.


AF426 transistor TEWA went on to produce more Westernised transistors, such as this AF426 in a TO-5 encapsulation. They also changed some of their earlier types to use unpainted metallic standard cans such as TO-1 or TO-5.


ADP670 transistor This ADP670 was made from about 1974 as a more modern version of TG70. By this time TEWA had been incorporated as a manufacturing plant of the Instytut Technologii Elektronowej CEMI (the Scientific-Production Center of Semiconductors). My image shows one of a matched pair sealed in their original polythene bag, hence the imperfect image.


FG2 photodiode The Polish semiconductor industry also made a few photodiodes, such as this FG2 made by Tranzystory Instytutu Łączności (the Transistors Institute of Communications) in the late 1950s.


DG diode Now we come to Polish germanium diodes, of which there were several series in interesting packages. The lowest-powered were the DG and DOG series, which are high-frequency diodes using typical axial glass encapsulation. There was also the DOP series of low-power rectifiers.


DZG4 diode Then the DZG series were medium-power rectifiers in a metal axial can about 15mm long. Their peak forward current varies from 300mA to 900mA. My image shows a presumably-older green-painted DZG4 and a metallic version. These diodes are also found with the S suffix that signifies "special production", usually meaning military, industrial and computer purposes.


DMG1 diode The DMG series were also medium-power rectifiers, but higher-powered than the DZG types, and in a large metal stud package. Their peak forward current varies from 2 Amps to 5 Amps. My image shows a green-painted DMG1; I also have some other DMG types painted a shiny black colour, again with an S suffix.




There were silicon diodes too, of course, but I shall not describe them here.

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