I have little information about the early manufacture of semiconductors in Italy. However, there are some sources:

SGS logo

Google Books contains "A History of the World Semiconductor Industry" by P.R.Morris. The pages on early Italain efforts state that the history of the Italian industry is largely that of one company, the SGS (Società Generale Semiconduttori) founded in 1957. In 1960 SGS developed a strategic relationship with Fairchild creating Fairchild-SGS. This lasted until 1968, after which they ran into financial difficulties. Fairchild sold its interest to Olivetti and the company reverted to being just SGS.

Morris' statement is perhaps unfair because the company Ates Componenti Elettronici was formed in the 1950ís to provide electronic components for the Italian government-operated telecommunications company S.T.E.T. (Societa Finanziara Telefonica). Ates was a subsidiary of Siemens, licensed to use RCA technology, and produced many germanium transistors in the standard pro Electron series AC, AD, AF, AL and AU.

In 1971 the Italian government decided to merge SGS with Ates to form SGS-Ates. To further confuse those searching for early devices, SGS subsequently dropped the 'Ates' and merged in 1987 with the French company Thomson Semiconducteurs, to form SGS-Thomson.

If you can provide more detail about this, or other smaller Italian semiconductor manufacturers, please

I have come across one other manufacturer, La Mistral (Manifattura Intereuropea Semiconduttori Transistori Latina), a company founded in 1959 in Sermoneta, near Rome. One of its two founder companies was a subsidiary of the French semiconductor manufacturer CSF. I have none of their products.

Two useful sources of early device data (and dates) are the books by Derivation and Tabulation Associates (D.A.T.A):

You can view and download those in full from the links above. The transistor book has an entry for MISTRAL that just says "SAME TYPES AS COSEM".


I do not know which were the first devices that SGS made. They may have started, like most others, with silicon point-contact microwave diodes for radar. If so, I have not found evidence or data for them. The 1961 D.A.T.A. book listed above shows three groups of products:

  • germanium diodes in the 1G series
  • diodes in the 1S series, which I assume are silicon
  • 1SV120 and 1SV130 diodes

The image on the right shows 1G58, a miniature glass type. The letters SGS are printed under a geometric shape described below.

If you have information about such diodes, please

1G58 diode

SGS 2G108 transistors

I'm also unsure of SGS' first transistors. The 1962 D.A.T.A. book listed above shows:

  • a series starting with 2G108 and ending with 2G1027 with many gaps. These are quite distinct from the Texas Instruments (UK) 2G types.
  • a limited number of 2N series types.

The image on the left shows the 2G108. It has the same geometric shape above the letters SGS as the 1G58 diode. I have not found any reference to this being an early SGS logo. On the right is what I believe to be 2G271, although the '2G' is missing.

If you have original data for SGS transistors, please

SGS 2G271 transistor
SGS EF1 transistor

I have come across other transistors such as this EF1 that I suspect are SGS 'hobbyist' types, although they are unbranded. There are a number of types: EC1, ED1, ED2, EF1, EF2, EIF1, EIF2, EIF11, EIF12.

If you have information about these, please


I have little original Ates data and few devices, but here is an AC191 in the standard TO-1 package. It is a germanium PNP AF type, possibly an output driver transistor. Oddly, Ates do not appear in the D.A.T.A. books listed above.

If you have original data for Ates devices, please

AC191 transistor

AUY35 transistor

And here is a rather corroded AUY35 which is a germanium PNP medium-power AF type in the TO-8 package.


The only SGS-ATES germanium device that I possess as this AY105K diode. It uses a TO-1A can inside an aluminium cuboid heatsink, more often used by Telefunken for their transistors.

AY105K diode

The only SGS-Fairchild device that I possess is a miniature glass diode type CS4 for which I have no data (or image).

If you have data for this, or other SGS-F types, please






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